What is Achilles Tendonitis, Duputrens Contracture and Myofascial treatment? These and more terms are briefly explained here.


Achilles tendonitis – Inflammation of the heel cord that is the extension from the triceps surae group of muscles.

ACL – Anterior cruciate ligament.

ALPSA lesion – Anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion.

Arthritis – Inflammation of a joint.

Arthroplasty – Reconstructive surgery of a joint or joints to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.

Atrophy – Reduction in size of an anatomic structure, frequently related to disuse or decreased blood supply.

Bankart lesion – Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.

Bennet lesion – Posterior glenoid defect associated with overhead throwing injuries.

Biomechanics – The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.

Bone cysts – A sac containing liquid or semisolid material on a bone.

Bone metastases – The spread of malignant cancer cells to bone.

Bunion – Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the 1st metatarsal.

Carpal tunnel syndrome – Loss of sensation and sometimes motor control if the median nerve is cut off at the wrist because of compression of the nerve at the carpal ligament.

Cerebal palsy – A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.

Chondrosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making cartilage.

Club feet – Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).

Custom splint fabrication – Custom or prefabricated orthotic devices designed to support, protect or immobilise or to correct deformities of the hand/upper extremity.

Desensitisation – Treatment of hypersensitivitiy and pain secondary to nerve injury, partial nerve injury, nerve compression, and soft—tissue injuries.

Dupuytren’s Contracture – A thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia of the hand resulting in flexion deformities of the finger.

Ewing’s sarcoma – Malignant tumor of bone seen in children, composed of small round cells.

Flatfoot – Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.

Hammer Toe – Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.

Hill-Sachs lesion – Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation.

Hip Dysplasia – Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket.

Iontophoresis – Process whereby ions in solution are transferred through the intact skin via electrical potential using bipolar electrodes.

Internal Glenoid Impingement – Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.

Joint mobilisation – Use of specific passive procedures to restore accessory movements, stretch joint capsules and ligaments and to reduce pain and muscle guarding of stiff joints.

Kinematics – That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.

Labral lesions – A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.

Leg length inequity – One leg is shorter than the other. This is a common sequel of many congenital and acquired musculoskeletal diseases.

Malunion – State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in abnormal position and/or alignment.

Multidirectional instability – Shoulder laxity in multiple directions which causes pain or dysfunction.

Muscular dystrophy – A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.

Myofascial treatment – Treatment of a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia.

Nerve block – Injection of anaesthetic around a nerve to determine if a particular nerve is responsible for causing pain, and to relieve pain.

Neuromuscular re-education – Used in cases of post operative care of surgical repair of nerve injuries. Involves the retraining of reinnervated muscles.

Nonunion – State of healing of the bone in which there is no healing.

Oedema Control – Methods and devices used to minimise persistent swelling in the hand or upper extremity.

Orthotics – The science that deals with orthoses designed to provide external control, correction and support. (orthoses = braces)

Osteoarthritis – Chronic arthritis, usually mechanical, not caused by inflammatory process.

Osteomyelitis – Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; can be caused by any organism, but usually bacteria.

Osteonecrosis – Death of bone tissue.

Osteosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making bone.

Osteotomy – Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.

Paget’s Disease – Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.

PCL – Posterior cruciate ligament.

Peripheral nerve disorders – Problems involving numbness, tingling and weakness in the upper extremity.

Prosthetics – The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb. (prostheses = artificial limb)

Rotator Cuff Disease – Inflammation or rupture of one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome – Painful RTC abrasion by an overhanging acromion, AC joint, or coraco-acromial ligament.

Rotator Cuff Tear – Tear of the rotator cuff tendons. (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, or Subscapularis)

Rotator Cuff Tendinosis – Degenerative changes in rotator cuff tendon that occur with age and with overuse.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis – Inflammation of the rotator cuff and associated bursal sac.

Scar remodeling – Includes various methods and devices such as scar massage, pressure garments, serial casting, motion, stress and elastomeres or topical silicone gel pads.

SLAP – Lesion Superior labral lesion in the shoulder.

Tendon – The extension of muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into a bone or other firm structure.

Tendonitis – Inflammation of a tendon.

Tendinosis – Degenerative condition of the tendon often caused by overuse.

Tennis elbow – Stress tendonitis on the lateral epicondyle.

Torn anterior cruciate ligament – Tear in the deep ligament within the knee that are crossed.

Torn medial collateral ligament – A tear in the strong fibrous ligament on the medial side of the knee connecting the femur with the tibia.

Torn meniscus – A tear in the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk between the two joint surfaces.

Torn rotator cuff – Tear in one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Total Joint Replacement – A joint replacement involing an internal prosthesis by removing the diseased joint and replacing the acetabluar components with either metal or plastic materials and a metal prosthesis of the femoral segment.

Trigger finger – Catching or locking of a finger.