What is Achilles Tendonitis, Duputrens Contracture and Myofascial treatment? These and more terms are briefly explained here.
Achilles tendonitis – Inflammation of the heel cord that is the extension from the triceps surae group of muscles.
ACL – Anterior cruciate ligament.
ALPSA lesion – Anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion.
Arthritis – Inflammation of a joint.
Arthroplasty – Reconstructive surgery of a joint or joints to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.
Atrophy – Reduction in size of an anatomic structure, frequently related to disuse or decreased blood supply.
Bankart lesion – Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.
Bennet lesion – Posterior glenoid defect associated with overhead throwing injuries.
Biomechanics – The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.
Bone cysts – A sac containing liquid or semisolid material on a bone.
Bone metastases – The spread of malignant cancer cells to bone.
Bunion – Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the 1st metatarsal.
Carpal tunnel syndrome – Loss of sensation and sometimes motor control if the median nerve is cut off at the wrist because of compression of the nerve at the carpal ligament.
Cerebal palsy – A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.
Chondrosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making cartilage.
Club feet – Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).
Custom splint fabrication – Custom or prefabricated orthotic devices designed to support, protect or immobilise or to correct deformities of the hand/upper extremity.
Desensitisation – Treatment of hypersensitivitiy and pain secondary to nerve injury, partial nerve injury, nerve compression, and soft—tissue injuries.
Dupuytren’s Contracture – A thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia of the hand resulting in flexion deformities of the finger.
Ewing’s sarcoma – Malignant tumor of bone seen in children, composed of small round cells.
Flatfoot – Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.
Hammer Toe – Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.
Hill-Sachs lesion – Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation.
Hip Dysplasia – Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket.
Iontophoresis – Process whereby ions in solution are transferred through the intact skin via electrical potential using bipolar electrodes.
Internal Glenoid Impingement – Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.
Joint mobilisation – Use of specific passive procedures to restore accessory movements, stretch joint capsules and ligaments and to reduce pain and muscle guarding of stiff joints.
Kinematics – That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.
Labral lesions – A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.
Leg length inequity – One leg is shorter than the other. This is a common sequel of many congenital and acquired musculoskeletal diseases.
Malunion – State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in abnormal position and/or alignment.
Multidirectional instability – Shoulder laxity in multiple directions which causes pain or dysfunction.
Muscular dystrophy – A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.
Myofascial treatment – Treatment of a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia.
Nerve block – Injection of anaesthetic around a nerve to determine if a particular nerve is responsible for causing pain, and to relieve pain.
Neuromuscular re-education – Used in cases of post operative care of surgical repair of nerve injuries. Involves the retraining of reinnervated muscles.
Nonunion – State of healing of the bone in which there is no healing.
Oedema Control – Methods and devices used to minimise persistent swelling in the hand or upper extremity.
Orthotics – The science that deals with orthoses designed to provide external control, correction and support. (orthoses = braces)
Osteoarthritis – Chronic arthritis, usually mechanical, not caused by inflammatory process.
Osteomyelitis – Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; can be caused by any organism, but usually bacteria.
Osteonecrosis – Death of bone tissue.
Osteosarcoma – Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making bone.
Osteotomy – Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.
Paget’s Disease – Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.
PCL – Posterior cruciate ligament.
Peripheral nerve disorders – Problems involving numbness, tingling and weakness in the upper extremity.
Prosthetics – The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb. (prostheses = artificial limb)
Rotator Cuff Disease – Inflammation or rupture of one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.
Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome – Painful RTC abrasion by an overhanging acromion, AC joint, or coraco-acromial ligament.
Rotator Cuff Tear – Tear of the rotator cuff tendons. (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, or Subscapularis)
Rotator Cuff Tendinosis – Degenerative changes in rotator cuff tendon that occur with age and with overuse.
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis – Inflammation of the rotator cuff and associated bursal sac.
Scar remodeling – Includes various methods and devices such as scar massage, pressure garments, serial casting, motion, stress and elastomeres or topical silicone gel pads.
SLAP – Lesion Superior labral lesion in the shoulder.
Tendon – The extension of muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into a bone or other firm structure.
Tendonitis – Inflammation of a tendon.
Tendinosis – Degenerative condition of the tendon often caused by overuse.
Tennis elbow – Stress tendonitis on the lateral epicondyle.
Torn anterior cruciate ligament – Tear in the deep ligament within the knee that are crossed.
Torn medial collateral ligament – A tear in the strong fibrous ligament on the medial side of the knee connecting the femur with the tibia.
Torn meniscus – A tear in the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk between the two joint surfaces.
Torn rotator cuff – Tear in one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.
Total Joint Replacement – A joint replacement involing an internal prosthesis by removing the diseased joint and replacing the acetabluar components with either metal or plastic materials and a metal prosthesis of the femoral segment.
Trigger finger – Catching or locking of a finger.